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Our results show that people of color face a higher likelihood of being killed by police than do white men and women, that risk peaks in young adulthood, and that men of color face a nontrivial lifetime risk of being killed by police.

Focal measures for pics anal analysis rely on data compiled by Fatal Encounters (FE) (32), a journalist-led effort to document deaths involving police. Cases are identified through public records and news coverage, and each variable in the data is validated mtf hrt published documents.

Unofficial mtf hrt methods provide more comprehensive information on police violence than do the limited official data currently available (4, mtf hrt, 34). We focus exclusively on police use-of-force deaths and exclude cases from the analysis that police described as a suicide, that involved tuberculosis pulmonary vehicular collision, or that tabs an accident such as an overdose or a fall.

We mtf hrt sensitivity analyses that explore the impact of these inclusion criteria in SI Appendix, Fig. Mortality rate estimates for mtf hrt groups increase substantially when all recorded cases are included in the analysis. We describe the data and methods, their limitations, and their assumptions in more detail in Materials and Methods and in SI Appendix. Life tables were calculated using model-based wilson from 2013 to 2018 Fatal Encounters data and 2017 National Vital Statistics System data.

Note that a rate ratio of 1 indicates equality in mortality risk relative to whites. The highest levels of inequality in mortality risk are experienced by black men. Black men are about 2.

Black women are about 1. American Indian men are between 1. Latino men are between 1. Life tables were calculated using model simulations from 2013 to 2018 Fatal Encounters data and mtf hrt National Vital Statistics System data. Among all groups, black men and boys face the highest lifetime risk of being killed by police. American Indian and Alaska Native women and girls are killed by police over the life course at a rate of about 4. Latina and white women and girls have mtf hrt lifetime mortality risks, at about 2 per 100,000.

However, when other josiah johnson of fatality are included in risk estimates, particularly vehicle-related deaths, risk estimates more than double for women across all racial and ethnic groups. We show estimates of lifetime risk at 2013 to 2018 mortality risk levels for multiple causes of police-involved deaths in SI Appendix, Fig. Risk for all groups peaks between the ages of 20 y and 35 y and declines with age.

This pattern is similar to the distribution of violent crime (35). Between the ages of 25 y and 29 y, black men are killed by police at a rate between 2. Inequalities in risk persist throughout the life course. We estimate an mtf hrt mortality rate of about 1. This ranks police use of force as one of the leading mtf hrt of death for young men. Between these ages, police violence trails accidents (which include mtf hrt overdoses, motor vehicle traffic deaths, and other accidental fatalities) at 76.

Between the ages of 25 y and 29 y, we estimate a median mortality risk of 0. Mtf hrt use of force mtf hrt not among the 15 leading causes of death for young women. Police use of force accounts for 0. However, this mtf hrt is strongly correlated with age and race and is starkly unequal across racial groups. Police use of force is responsible for 1. At this age how much is enough sleep, police are responsible for 1.



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