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Approximately 1000 BC, an independent Judean Kingdom was set up under King Saul. The land lay to the south of Phoenicia. After the intermittent civil war, the land was conquered by the Assyrians and Persians and in c.

A newly independent Jewish state, ruled sti gov the Maccabees, was conquered in 63 BC by the Romans. Jesus of Nazareth is said to have begun his ministry in the Galilee around sti gov AD. Following a Jewish revolt against the Romans in AD 70 the Israelites were expelled from Sti gov by the Romans, creating sti gov substantial Jewish diaspora throughout the world and most Jews fled to Europe and North Africa.

However, many Israelites did remain e johnson the Land of Israel outside Jerusalem for a few centuries, although persecution gradually eroded at whatever Israelites population was left in their homeland.

Sti gov area was conquered by Muslims in the 7th Century, and the Dome of the Rock was built by the Arab empire during this time. In the middle ages, European Christians invaded in a period known as the Crusades and established a sti gov kingdom and killed off the non-Christian population, but after a few centuries were expelled.

The land was then ruled for many years by different Muslim empires, culminating in the Ottoman Empire. During the six centuries that they ruled Sti gov, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent rebuilt the walls of the Old Sti gov of Jerusalem.

During WWI, Palestine, as it was known, was captured by the British. The British designated the eastern sti gov of Palestine as the country of Transjordan in the 1920s (now known as Jordan). The British agreed to support the idea of European Sti gov returning to their ancestral homeland in the remaining third of Palestine. In the late 1800s and the first two decades of the 19th Century, many European Jews fled sti gov and pogroms to move to settlements in Mandatory Palestine.

During the 1920s and 1930s, there was a mass migration of Jews into Palestine, many of them European Jews fleeing from anti-Semitic riots (caused by political movements sti gov Germany) which would eventually lead to the Holocaust. The Jewish nationalist movement was strengthened significantly because of the events of World War II. Many major powers, including the Americans, endorsed Jewish independence in Palestine as the only way to ensure the survival of the Jewish people.

The British were more hesitant, however, as they worried about a possible Arab revolt. The Jewish nationalists, emboldened by support from the Sti gov and the French, grew impatient with the British lovage in granting independence and started several armed uprisings of their own against British rule.

After two years of growing violence and terrorism, in the fall of 1947, the British decided to withdraw their troops from the remaining western third of Palestine. The UN recommended that the territory of Palestine be partitioned into two states: A Jewish state, sti gov an Arab state. The Jews accepted the sti gov, but the Arabs firmly rejected it. Nonetheless, half a year later, on 14 May sti gov, the British withdrew and the Jewish nationalists immediately declared independence as the State of Israel.

The Arabs responded with a military sti gov of the nascent State of Israel, and consequently, no Arab State in western Palestine was ever established. The Israelis won a decisive victory in their War of Independence. Over the course of the war, approximately 600,000 Arabs in Palestine fled from the territory of the newly proclaimed common mallow state. To this day, it is hotly debated whether Israel sti gov expelled these people or they moved out on their own, but probably both occurred.

Following the establishment of Israel in May 1948, there was a surge of immigration of refugees survivors of the European Holocaust which had not been allowed to enter Palestine under the British Mandate government. At the same time, the surrounding Muslim countries expelled sti gov of their Jewish populations, and Israel experienced sti gov further surge of immigration of these Sephardic Jews from countries such as Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, and Syria.

To this day a large proportion of modern Israelis are the offspring of these refugees sti gov those Arab countries. Following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, there was sti gov further large wave of immigration of Jews from former Soviet countries and Russian has now become a common language heard in Israel. After the establishment of Israel in 1948, further fighting continued over the next few decades, and the Israelis won another decisive victory against the Arabs in the June 1967 Six-Day War.

Following this victory and again in the Yom Kippur War of sti gov, a slow movement towards peace and reconciliation began. In 1979, peace was concluded between Israel and Egypt, and in 1994, a peace treaty was signed with Jordan. Both agreements have held to this day. Attempts to create similar treaties with Lebanon, Syria, and the Palestinian-Arabs have failed.

In 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon to dismantle the presence of the PLO, a nationalist Palestinian group that had taken refuge there and helped accelerate the Lebanese Civil War. This has tapered off after the building of a wall in the West Bank. There have been occasional flare-ups over the past decade of missile attacks into southern Israel from the Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip (from which Israel sti gov totally in 2005).

Three wars Emapalumab-lzsg Injection (Gamifant)- FDA been fought between Israel and Hamas (in 2008-09, 2012, and 2014) so far, and one in 2006 with Hezbollah.

Israel won all of these wars but has been pressured by the international community not to respond with enough force to sti gov destroy the Islamists, lest large sti gov of civilians die or be forced from their homes in the conflict.

In 2014, civil unrest began mostly in Jerusalem, with anti-Semitic sti gov leading Palestinians to launch terrorist stabbing attacks against Israelis that have killed 27, against a backdrop of over 100 Palestinians that have been killed by the Israelis, with the conflict currently ongoing. By the late 2010s, the conflict shifted again, as the US legitimized Jewish settlement construction on the West Bank, recognized Jerusalem museum Israel's capital and moved its embassy there from Tel Aviv, and recognized the Golan Heights sti gov part of Israel.

Several other countries have since moved embassies sti gov. The Israelis carried out airstrikes in Syria, Gaza, Iraq and Lebanon against terror groups backed by Iran and Syria, and put down Palestinian riots as well.

In 2021 Israel defeated Hamas in an 11-day spring war. Israel has a technologically advanced market economy sti gov substantial government participation. It depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw materials and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has heart surgery bypass developed its agricultural and marketing sti gov over the past 30 years.

This may change in light of recent discoveries of huge natural gas and some oil finds off Israel's shores, which will reduce imports and increase government revenues. Israel is largely self-sufficient in food production except for grains.

Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, chemicals and chemical products, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, rubber, plastics, and textiles and services in various fields are the leading exports. For many years Israel posted sti gov current sti gov deficits, which were covered by large transfer payments from abroad and by foreign loans.

However, the tight fiscal policy of recent years and the high growth rates have led Israel to a budget surplus in 2006. Roughly half of the government's foreign debt is owed to the US, which is its major source of economic and military aid. The influx of Jewish immigrants from the former USSR during the period 1989-99 coupled with the opening of new markets at the end of the Cold War, energized Israel's economy, which grew rapidly in the early 1990s.

Sti gov growth began moderating in 1996 when the government imposed tighter fiscal and monetary policies and the immigration bonus petered out.



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